Pet sterilization has its supporters and opponents, but most experts agree that the average companion dog should be spayed (female) or neutered (male). Surgical sterilization makes reproduction impossible, combating pet overpopulation. Spaying or neutering can also prevent the occurrence of life-threatening health conditions associated with the reproductive system, including cancer. Dogs that are spayed or neutered by six months of age are far less likely to develop behavioral issues that are related to gender-specific hormones.
As the owner of your dog, you have the right to decide whether or not to have your dog sterilized. However, responsible dog owners will choose the option that is best for the dog, the community, and the overall pet population. Intact (unsterilized) animals require extra supervision to prevent escape attempts and unplanned pregnancies. Unspayed females (bitches) will have vaginal bleeding (spotting) during estrus and may need to wear a protective garment.
When It is Acceptable NOT to Spay or Neuter
- Dog is purebred, has valid breeding records, meets the breed standard, and is part of a professional breeding program (these dogs will ideally participate in conformation)
- Dog has a health condition that makes surgery too high of a risk (as decided by your veterinarian)
When You Should ALWAYS Spay or Neuter
- Dog is a mixed-breed
- Dog has health problems and/or behavioral issues that could be passed on to offspring
- If spay/neuter is required by law
Poor Excuses to Keep Your Dog Intact
- You are not a qualified breeder, but want your dog to have "just one litter" before being spayed. This just adds to the overpopulation problem and has not been proven to be medically beneficial.
- You have found homes for all of the pups. If you know people who want puppies, send them to local animal shelters and rescue groups. For every puppy you place in a home, another may be getting euthanized.
- You think your dog will get fat and lazy. While hormonal changes can have some affect, weight gain and changes in energy level are usually the result of the normal aging process. Give your dog a healthy diet and plenty of exercise
- You want your children to witness the miracle of life. Your dog is not a teaching model. Contact a responsible breeder or a farmer in your area and plan an educational field trip with the kids.
- You worry your dog will miss its "parts." Neutering does not make male dogs feel emasculated, and spaying won't leave your female with some sort of emptiness. Animals simply do not think this way.
Alternatives to Spay/Neuter
Without sterilization, animals need to be confined to prevent accidental mating. Certain companies have created garments that act as chastity belts for pets, but these will not stop the pets from trying to mate. Chemical sterilization is not readily available and may not be safe or effective. Surgical sterilization remains the best option to prevent pet overpopulation. Tubal ligation or vasectomy are surgical alternatives to the traditional spay or neuter, but not all veterinary professionals will perform these procedures. Additionally, these procedures may not be 100% effective and will not remove the reproductive organs, meaning pets will still create the hormones responsible for certain reproductive behaviors. Ask your veterinarian for more information about tubal ligation or vasectomy in pets.
Remember to be a responsible dog owner and make the right choice. If you have concerns, questions, or just need more information, talk to your veterinarian and other dog professionals.